Role of Bioenergy in a Climate Neutral Energy System

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Climate change today is what’s happening here and now. Transition to a climate neutral energy system has multiple pathways, but fundamentally is underpinned by renewables, energy efficiency and conservation, electrification, hydrogen and its deriva- tives, and carbon capture and storage. Bioenergy as a versatile renewable source, with improved appliances and technologies, can facilitate this process through direct supply of green electricity, heat and fuel, indirect electrification in terms of conver- sion between biomethane and hydrogen, and carbon sequestration with biochar and BECCS equipments. In the power and heat sector, bioenergy functions as the best replacement for fossil fuels to provide grid flexibility, and feedstock blending can share the existing infrastructure while reduce the emission intensity. In transport sector, biofuel will keep being the major renew- able substitute and blend for fossil fuels before the extensive electrification, then gradually shift and take up a large share in shipping and aviaion. In industry sector, bioenergy will play an active part in circular economy by managing industrial waste, providing process heat and feedstock for chemical production. In building sector, bioenergy will enable the wide public access to green residential heating and clean cooking, and help improve the socioeconomic and health conditions of rural residents.